法王新闻 | 2018年07月

法王噶瑪巴於維吉尼亞州開示〈修心八頌〉
Making Friends with Our World – Karmapa Teaches on Mind Training

時間:2018年7月12日 July 12, 2018
地點:美國 維吉尼亞州 The Marriot Conference Hall, Tysons Corner Marriott, Tysons, Virginia

法王噶瑪巴應首府地區佛教協會(Capitol Area Buddhist Association)和華盛頓特區的藏人團體的邀請,於維吉尼亞州泰森角萬豪飯店(Tysons Corner Marriott)給予〈修心八頌〉開示。之前,法王與多位美國眾議員在國會大廈遊客中心(Capitol Visitor Center)慶祝達賴喇嘛尊者華誕,這項開示為其相關活動。
His Holiness began by extending his greetings to all who had come, particularly to the Capitol Area Buddhist Association and Tibetan community members in the DC area who had organized this event. He also extended a warm welcome to the Chinese and Vietnamese brothers and sisters, and to all Dharma friends. The Karmapa noted that the event today had been organized in conjunction with the birthday celebration for His Holiness the Dalai Lama, which took place in the Capitol Visitor Center of the US Congress with several members of the House of Representatives in attendance.

法王首先問候主辦單位,以及在場的華籍和越南籍等各國法友。接著,法王直接進入今天的主題,給予噶當派大師朗日塘巴修心口訣的開示。〈修心八頌〉為如何為利益有情而發菩提心之要訣。以下為開示摘要:
The Karmapa then turned to the topic of his talk, the Eight Verses on Mind Training by the Kadampa master Langri Thangpa. This is a key instruction on how to give rise to the mind of bodhichitta, the wish to attain awakening for the sake of all living beings.

第一偈
我於一切有情眾,視之尤勝如意寶,
依彼能成究竟利,願常心懷珍愛情。
The first verse reads:
Considering all living beings
More precious than a wish-fulfilling gem,
To accomplish the highest aim,
I will always hold them dear.

第一個偈文教導的是,我們應如何看待共同生活在地球上的眾生。我們應當以慈悲且如法的方式來看待眾生,這點非常重要。傷害眾生只會導致自己的痛苦。另一方面而言,如果我們發菩提心,並且以和諧的方式來對待眾生,我們就可能成就遍知的佛果。總而言之,這偈在教導我們,獲得圓滿的證悟取決於其他的有情眾生:我們的利他之心能夠開啟成佛之道,並且引領我們邁向正覺佛果。因此,志求圓滿證悟者當珍愛眾生,把眾生視為是最上。
“This verse.” His Holiness explained, “teaches how to connect with all the living beings who share this planet with us. It is critical to know how to relate with others in a compassionate and Dharmic way. If we harm them, it will only lead to our own suffering. On the other hand, if we can generate bodhichitta and respond to them in a harmonious way, that can bring us to the level of buddhahood or omniscience. In brief, what this verse teaches is that attaining full awakening depends on other living beings: the attitude of wishing to benefit them opens the path and brings us to enlightenment. Therefore, those who seek complete realization should value others and see them as supreme.”

第二偈
隨處與誰為伴時,視己較諸眾人卑,
從心深處思利他,恆常尊他為最上。
The second verse states:
When in the company of others,
I will see myself as lowest of them all,
And from the depths of my heart
Cherish others as supreme.

我們要從內心深處,勇敢地將他人視為比自己更好。大海就是一個很好的例子:大海處於所謂最低下的「海平面」,所有的河流最終都會流入大海,因此大海能夠納受百川之水。同樣地,如果我們可以捨棄自己的傲慢,生起真正的謙卑,我們就能夠欣賞他人的功德,並且從他人身上獲得知識,那麼這些就會像是河入大海般的流入我們。無論我們去到哪裡、見到什麼樣的人、處於什麼樣的情境,我們都會有所學習成長。如果我們能夠對治自己的傲慢,恆常保持謙下和開放,那麼每一個境遇都會是我們體驗和學習新知的機會。
“Here, from the depth of our hearts, we are encouraged to consider that others are superior to us and that we are lower,” the Karmapa explained. “A good example for this is the oceans, which lie at the lowest altitude, known as ‘sea level.’ Due to this position, the oceans are able to receive the waters of the world as all the rivers eventually flow into them. Likewise, if we can lose our pride and develop true humility, we will be able to appreciate the qualities of others and receive knowledge from them, which will flow into us as rivers into the ocean. No matter where we might go, no matter whom we might meet, and no matter what the circumstances might be, we can always learn something. If we can work with our pride and remain humble and open at all times, then every occasion presents an opportunity to experience and learn something new.”

第三偈
一舉一動觀自心,正當煩惱初萌生,
即將惱害自他時,願疾呵斥令消除。
The third verse runs:
In everything I do, I will watch my mind.
As soon as afflictions arise,
I will face them squarely and turn them around,
For they endanger others and myself as well.

前一個偈文告訴我們,當視他人為最上、最重要。然而,要這麼做到,其實並不容易,因為有時候我們無法接受所有眾生都高過自己。這個時候,我們就要看著自己的這種心態,而且要了知它來自於自己的煩惱。接著,我們就要思維煩惱,以及煩惱恆時主宰著我們,為我們帶來許多問題。如果能夠清楚的看到煩惱的過患,我們就可以清除自以為高人一等的心態。依賴著正念和警覺,我們就可以在煩惱初生起時有所覺知。
“The previous verses,” the Karmapa continued, “counseled that we should hold others to be superior and important; however, this is hard to put into practice and sometimes we cannot accept that all living beings are higher than we are. At this point, we need to look at this attitude and realize that it comes from our afflictions. We should then think about the afflictions and about all the times that they have taken over and caused us so many problems. If we clearly consider how troublesome they are, this will clear away the attitude of thinking we are superior to others. Relying on being vigilant, mindful and aware, we can catch the afflictions just as they start to appear.

我們可以看到,受過修心訓練者和沒有受過修心訓練者,他們面對煩惱的方式顯著不同。例如,當內心即將生起憤怒時,我們有阻止它的機會,然而一旦憤怒完全發出來時,想要阻止就很難,因為我們已經被憤怒控制住了。但是,對於一個有修心經驗的人來說,他可以看到憤怒生起的過程,因此可以在它完全發出來之前,短時間內就予以擊退。這裡最重要的是依賴我們的經驗,以及警覺和正念覺知的能力。一旦覺察煩惱即將生起,我們即刻有力的予以阻止。如果沒有這方面的修持經驗的話,這就很難做到。
“If we look at the experience of people who have trained their minds and those who have not, the difference is clear. For example, when anger begins to appear in our mind, we have a chance to stop it, but once it becomes full blown, this is very difficult, as the affliction has taken control. However, those with the experience of mind training can see the process of anger’s arising, so they will have a short time to reflect before the anger manifests. Most important here is to reply on our experience and ability to be vigilant, mindful and aware. As soon as we see an affliction beginning to arise, we stop it immediately and forcefully. Without the experience of practice, this is very difficult to do.”

第四偈
秉性邪惡眾有情,恆為猛烈罪苦迫,
見時如遇大寶藏,願恆惜此難得寶。
The fourth verse speaks of exchanging ourselves for another.
Whenever I see ill-natured people
Or those oppressed by grim misdeeds and misery,
Like discovering a precious treasure,
I will cherish them as valuable and rare.

前面第二偈講到,要視他人比我們自己為上,那麼這一偈就給了一個例子,要把他人視為是一個可以消弭貧苦的大寶藏。如果乞丐獲得這樣的一個大寶藏,他的貧窮得以消失。同樣地,把他人視為是珍寶,我們得以克服自己的困難。
“The second verse counseled us to consider others higher than ourselves. This present verse gives an example—a precious treasure, which can alleviate the suffering of poverty. If a beggar finds this, their poverty will disappear. Likewise by seeing others as precious, we can overcome our difficulties.

第一行「秉性邪惡」的眾生,指的是個性難以相處,或是造惡多端的、甚至超乎我們理解的人。由於個性和行為,他們恆常承受著痛苦。在遇到像這樣的一個人時,我們該怎麼做?我們要生大歡喜心,把他當成是一個學習的難得機會,好比是找到大寶藏一般。
“The first line speaks of people who are ‘ill-natured,’ which refers to someone who has a difficult character or who has done many negative things. It could even be someone who transcends our capacity to understand. Due to their character and actions, they are constantly suffering. What should we do when meeting such a person? Seize the occasion as a rare opportunity to learn something. As if we had found a priceless treasure, we are thrilled since meeting an ill-nature person is an exceptional opportunity to train our mind.

實際的進行修心可以開發我們面對困境的能力。但這不是光靠坐在一個安靜的地方思維:「願一切眾生獲得安樂,願一切眾生免於痛苦。」就可以辦到。我們必須走出自己的舒適圈,面對真實生活裡的困境,然後檢驗自己的修心是否有成效。
“Truly engaging in mind training develops our capacity to deal with difficult situations. But this cannot happen by merely sitting on a cushion in a peaceful place of meditation and thinking, ‘May all living beings be happy. May they be free of suffering.’ We have to move out of our comfort zone to face difficult situations in real life and see if our mind training actually works.

戰士要接受軍事演習的艱辛挑戰,將來在實際上戰場時,他們才會有萬全的準備。修心的訓練也是如此,我們可以想像那些讓自己感到壓力、沮喪或難過的情境,然後激發出自己面對它的力量。如果能夠這樣修持,我們將來就會有面對困境的能力。否則,如果只是放鬆的處於某種安樂的狀態中,那麼在面對實際的問題時,我們就會感覺困難重重。
“Soldiers are challenged with tough training that mimics a real battle. Later, when they are on an actual battlefield, they are fully prepared. Likewise, when engaging in mind training, we can imagine stressful, frustrating, or upsetting situations, and fire up our strength to deal with them. If we can practice like this, then later we will be able to deal with difficult situations. Otherwise, if we prefer to hang out and relax in some seemingly peaceful state, we will have a hard time facing actual problems.

第五偈
他人出於嫉妒心,非理辱罵謗我等,
粗惡穢言我取受,願將勝利奉獻他。
The fifth verse reads:
Whenever someone caught by envy
Does me wrong by scolding or demeaning me,
I will take defeat upon myself
And give victory to others.

在討論珍愛他人和謙卑處下後,第五偈講的是自他交換的實修。這裡有兩個層面:運用我們的想像力,以及實際進行修持;這就好比是依賴文字或實義。
“After discussing the preliminaries of cherishing others and being humble, the text now speaks of the actual practice of exchanging oneself for another. There are two aspects here—using our imagination and actually engaging in the practice, which are similar to relying on just the words or the actual meaning.

「粗惡穢言我取受,願將勝利奉獻他」是此偈的主要精神。以世俗的話來講,我們可以舉打官司為例,其中會有勝訴的一方,也會有敗訴的一方。有人可能會故意敗訴讓對方贏,從別人的眼光來看,這個人似乎是個好人,但事實上這個人並非真的具有「願將勝利奉獻他」的能力,他只是看似具有佛法的修行,但事實並非如此,所以要仔細檢驗。
“I will take defeat upon myself / And give victory to others” is the key message of this verse and it is expressed in worldly terms, using everyday language. Here, we could think of a court case, in which one person wins and the other loses. To appear as a good person in the eyes of others, someone might lose the court case on purpose, but in fact this person does not have the real capacity to give victory to others and take on defeat for themselves. It might appear as Dharma practice, but actually it is not, so we have to examine carefully.

第六偈
吾昔饒益助某人,且曾深心寄厚望,
彼雖非理妄加害,願視彼為善知識。
The sixth verse advises:
Even when someone I have helped
And placed my great hopes in
Harms me most unfairly,
I’ll see them as a true spiritual friend.

第七偈
無論直接與間接,願獻利樂於慈母,
如母有情諸苦患,我願暗中自取受。
The seventh verse reads:
Briefly, in direct or indirect ways,
I will help and bring happiness to all my mothers
While secretly taking upon myself
All of their hurt and suffering.

第六偈講的是某個我們有恩於他的人,他卻恩將仇報。這時,別錯失這個修心的機會,應該把他視為是我們的善知識。
“The sixth verse treats the situation in which someone we have helped returns the favor by harming us. Not to waste an opportunity to train our mind, we see that person as our spiritual friend.

第七偈延續前一偈,鼓勵我們不僅別去傷害這個人,而且還要以德報怨,把利樂奉獻給他。
The seventh verse continues this thread of thought and encourages us not only not to harm this person, but to return their harm with help.

我們如何將「勝利獻他,失敗自取呢?我們可以用另一種方式來看待自己的念頭,把念頭分為兩類:自我珍愛的念頭和珍愛他人的念頭。事實上,當我們真心接受失敗時,我們就是在打擊這種對自我的珍愛;當我們真心將勝利奉獻給他人時,我們就是在與他人相融合。
“How do we actually take defeat on ourselves and give victory to others? Another way of looking at our thoughts is to divide them into two categories: those based on cherishing ourselves and those based on cherishing others. In fact, when we truly accept defeat, we are crushing this self-cherishing. When we truly offer victory to others, we are merging together with them.

究竟而言,修心是在調伏我們起心動念的因。相對而言,日常生活當中,我們經常耽於自私自利的念頭。因此,修心的精要便是在培養對他人的珍愛之心。
Ultimately, mind training is working with the cause of our thoughts while relatively, in our daily lives, we are continually watchful for thoughts that fixate on our own benefit. The essence of mind training is to develop the frame of mind (and its causes) that cherishes others.

這裡主要的修持就是「自他交換」。在座許多人都已經知道這項修持:吸氣時,我們觀想眾生的疾病和痛苦融入自身;呼氣時,我們觀想將自己所有的功德和順緣供獻給一切眾生。
“The main that practice for doing this is known as sending and receiving (tonglen). Many of you already know this visualization. As we inhale, we imagine that all the illness and suffering of living beings dissolves into us. As we exhale, we image that all our virtue and everything positive goes out to all living beings.

實際而言,這項修持的目的在增長我們珍愛他人的能力,並且減損我們自我珍愛的習氣。
In effect, what we are doing here is increasing our power to cherish others and decreasing the influence of cherishing ourselves.

然而,有些人誤解自他交換的修持,例如,他們會把它變成是一種自利的修持,或是他們怕修自他交換會傷害到自己。事實上,這種擔憂是個好徵兆,起碼這代表他們對這項修持很認真,同時也進行過一些思維。無論是什麼樣的誤解,基本上,自他交換的修持並不會傷害到我們,而有助於培養我們的愛他利他之心。
“Some people, however, misunderstand sending and receiving. For example, they turn the practice into something that benefits them or they fear that the practice will harm them. Actually, this worry is a good sign as it means that they take the practice seriously and have been thinking about it. Whatever these misunderstandings might be, basically, tonglen is a practice that will not harm us but train our mind to cherish and benefit others.

第八偈
願此一切我所行,不為八法念垢染,
以知諸法如幻智,無執離縛而解脫。
The Eighth and final verse states:
I will keep all of these practices untainted
By thoughts of the eight worldly concerns.
Recognizing all things to resemble illusions,
May I be free of attachment and released from bondage.

由於前面七個偈文的修持,有可能受到世間八法(利、衰、毀、譽、稱、譏、苦、樂)的染污而形成過患,因此,這裡的對治便是了知「諸法如幻智」的空性正見。論釋中提到,前七個偈文跟世俗諦有關,最後這個偈文跟勝義諦有關。
“It is possible that all the practices mentioned in the previous seven verses could become tainted by thoughts involved in the eight worldly concerns (wishing for happiness, fame, praise, and gain while fearing their opposites, suffering, insignificance, blame, and loss) and so turn into faults. The remedy here is to reflect on emptiness by “recognizing all things to resemble illusions.” Commentaries state that the first seven verses are concerned with relative truth and this final verse relates to ultimate truth.

於此,我們圓滿了格西朗日塘巴〈修心八頌〉的解說。如果各位能夠把這八個偈文背起來,時時反思它們的涵義,這樣會很好。在面對困難時,我們對這些偈文的憶念,將有助於我們渡過難關,達到修心真正的目的。
“This concludes our brief discussion of the Eight Verses on Mind Training by Geshe Langri Thangpa. It would be good to memorize these eight stanzas and reflect on their meaning. When we are going through hard times, we can recall them and they will help us to face whatever difficulties we are going through and to truly practice training our minds.”

开示视频(藏、英):