法王新闻 | 2008年12月

第三期華人宗門實修─第一天日誌:好上師與好弟子各有三道試金石

First day of the teaching on “Teachings of Kagyu Masters”

地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2008年12月31日
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治、噶瑪諾布、鄭履中、潘士偉

法王說虔敬心與三昧耶

上師與弟子之間的三昧耶,弟子對上師的信心,是引導金剛乘行者直至解脫的重要心髓,也是口傳派噶舉傳承最珍貴的特質之一──噶舉傳承持有者法王噶瑪巴,今天在為期三天(12/31-1/2)的「第三期華人宗門實修」 首日課程,就「直擊要點」,開示「上師應有的三種德相」,與「弟子應有的三種德行」。

2008年最後一天,由法王噶瑪巴主法、化育基金會主辦的「第三期華人宗門實修」三天課程,在佛陀成道聖地菩提迦耶德噶寺,正式展開。上午9:00至11:00,以及下午3:00至5:00兩堂課,尊貴的第十七世法王噶瑪巴鄔 金欽列多傑,為來自全球四大洲38國,包含26位請法功德主的1500名弟子,從原定的主題「噶舉祖師教言」,援引祖師岡波巴大師與第一世 噶瑪巴杜松虔巴、第八世噶瑪巴米覺多傑教言,開示什麼才是具德的上師與具 格的弟子。

「老媽媽」上菜,「回家」的孩子有福!

日益展現幽默風采的法王噶瑪巴,今天上午9:00開始,在經常揚起的滿堂笑聲中,以中文、藏文交插講述的「雙聲帶」方式,開始一天兩堂課、連續三天的教導。法王首先讚嘆來自全球的弟子,不受最近印度不佳的氣候 與孟買恐怖攻擊事件影響,「不顧一切前來,你們算得上是勇士吧!」

法王接著又說,今天是今年最後一天,孩子們都回家了,「我像個老媽媽,就想好好給孩子們做頓過年的飯菜,但也不知是甜是鹹,不知道味道好不好…」聽到這裡,正在享用法味盛筵的「孩子們」爆起如雷掌聲,感謝 「老媽媽」──法王噶瑪巴。

一位好上師,要有三條件

接著,法王切入主題開示,經典上說一位好上師要「具備殷重、殊勝的功德,並能引領弟子的心入道」,這樣的上師,「密乘不只是看待他如佛,而是他根本就是佛!」法王接著引岡波巴大師《解脫莊嚴寶鬘》教言「上 師應具備的三種德相」說:一位好上師,應該具有以下三種特質──

一 斷除對此生的貪著;

二 能以大智慧導引他人入道;

三 能以大悲憫而不捨弟子。

法王並引第一世法王杜松虔巴對此的釋論,解說這三種特質:

第一點,上師應斷捨對此生的貪著:若未能如此,弟子有承事供養才教導,如此關係建立在現實利益上,則易墮惡趣,「猶如雙牛,易墮深淵」。但弟子對這一點的要求要斟酌,「不能太鬆,也不能太緊」,因為世間 實修的上師少,若是嚴格要求上師「完全斷除對此生的貪著」,恐怕不容易找到上師;但若要求太鬆,找到一位太著意在「世間八法」,太有「人我、親疏」分別心的上師,也是不行的。

第二點,以大智慧導引他人入道:法王說,「應依弟子程度,次第教授」,符合弟子程度宣說法教,讓弟子的心意與法相結合,才是具有大智慧的上師。

第三點,以大悲憫不捨弟子:法王引第一世噶瑪巴杜松欽巴教言說:「一位好上師,要有即使犧牲自己的生命,也絕不讓弟子墮入惡道的大悲心。」這樣的上師,總是念茲在茲的想著,如何幫助弟子從無明、煩惱中出 離,直到弟子能自立、利他之前,都不捨離。

上師會不會教,就看弟子修得好不好

下午的課程,法王噶瑪巴繼續就上午的「上師應具有的三種德相」主題,進一步開示「如何分辨上師是否具備這些德相」。

法王開示,總的來說,「一位上師的功德應比過患多」,但如何判斷一位上師他真的具有好上師的功德呢?這是很困難的,「一個凡夫無法了知另一個凡夫的境界」,何況是「等同於佛的上師」呢?「如果我們可以了 解佛的遍知,那我們自己就變成遍知了,哪裡需要另一位遍知(指佛)來引導、救護我們呢?」

我們只能憑藉上師外在的作為,和弟子受教後的表現來判斷。

以第一點來說,可以觀察這位上師是否太著意世間八法,而不是為長遠、究竟的解脫安樂而努力?是否貪圖名聞利養而說法?但要注意的是,有時弟子供養時,上師示現歡喜相,是要鼓勵弟子、「讓弟子歡喜」,不可 誤會上師貪愛這些財物供養,這是要善加分辨的。

第二點,判斷上師是否具有大智慧,可以觀察弟子學習之後,是否「心向於法,斷惡修善,煩惱漸少,與法相應」,由此可知上師是否具足引導弟子的智慧。

第三點,觀察一位上師是否具足「不捨弟子的大悲憫」,有些上師的確一見就知道他是一位「救護者」、「受皈依者」;但有些上師則可以觀察他是否「心口如一」,「一位真正慈悲的人,行住坐臥間都會自然流露慈 悲,而不捨棄任何一個眾生。」

雖有過患,能勸弟子心向善法,仍有功德

除了真正具足以上三點的具德上師,我們應該依止,法王說,其實還有很多種上師也有可貴之處,值得學習。一般而言,上師可分為「依止」與「學習」兩種:真正有實修的上師,值得我們「依止」;而有些雖無實修、 但有學問、嫻熟三藏的上師,也值得我們恭敬,並隨他「學習」。

還有些上師,雖然自己仍有過患,但仍像鄉下老媽媽一樣,一心為兒女好,絮絮叨叨念些自己也做不到的事,這都是希望弟子「心向善法」,仍是有功德的。法王舉例說,譬如有些藏地的上師,自己有愛吃肉的習氣「 吃得很香」,但仍勸弟子「不要殺生,最好不要吃肉」,這雖有過患,仍是希望弟子「心向善法」。

還有些上師的因緣十分特殊,法王舉了蔣貢康楚羅卓泰耶的故事說,第一世蔣貢仁波切有位上師竟然不識字,原來是這位上師曾得到一部特殊法的口傳,蔣貢仁波切在接受這位上師口傳時,還必須拼字給這位上師聽, 非常辛苦才完成口傳。

一位好弟子,也有三要件

下午課程後半,法王開玩笑說:「接著要來說上師怎麼折磨弟子了。」引起台下弟子們一片大笑。

法王引祖師岡波巴大師教言說:「一位具格弟子應備三種德行──

一 沒有傲慢而虔誠恭敬;

二 樂於接受教誨而依教奉行;

三 讓上師歡喜的事,捨命也要去做。

接著,法王引第八世法王米覺多傑對此的釋論說:

第一點,就是「要視上師為不住輪迴涅槃、得大菩提的成就者,而看待自己如陷身爛泥中的甲蟲」。

第二點,對上師所交代「調伏心性」的事,都要如期完成。

第三點,為了完成上師的交付,即使奉獻自己的身體、生命也在所不惜。

三種思維,幫你生起「上師如佛」的虔敬心

對於第一點,如何「沒有傲慢而虔誠恭敬」,法王補充說,要生起「上師如佛」的虔敬心,可從三點來思維──

一、不輕侮凡夫相的上師:佛陀和金剛總持都說過,「末法時期,我將化身為凡夫相的上師來利益眾生」,佛是「真語者,實語者,不妄語者」,我們要相信佛陀所說的話,某一位凡夫相的上師,即是佛陀的化身,這 是可能的。

二、信心是加持的關鍵:十方諸佛都是為利益眾生而成佛,沒有不利益眾生的佛菩薩,所以與諸佛無別的上師一定會幫助你的,但關鍵是「信心」。要相信上師即是「行佛事業者」,「當我們有信心,諸佛菩薩就得到 度化我們的機會」,「上師就像一個導體、轉運站,將諸佛菩薩的功德、力用,轉接到有信心的弟子身上」。

三、不要只憑外相判斷上師:譬如噶舉祖師那洛巴初見帝洛巴時,以為他只是一個平凡的漁夫,密勒日巴初見馬爾巴時,以為他只是一個鄉下老人,一個偉大上師,乍看可能像個凡夫,「甚至豬狗不如」,所以不要被 外貌騙了,上師並不是坐在高高的法座上,面前擺滿了金剛杵、金剛鈴,所以他就叫「金剛上師」。「不要看外相,要看內在的功德」。

不聽話、辦不到,就是犯了「三昧耶戒」?

對於第二點,「樂於接受教誨而依教奉行」,法王也補充說,首先要了解依止上師的目的,是要「調伏自己,明辨是非」,凡是與此相符的教法,都要盡力去做。

法王說,金剛乘常說「三昧耶戒」,有些上師也會拿「三昧耶戒」來威脅弟子聽話,「其實心存輕蔑、故意違犯上師的言教,才算犯三昧耶戒」,不小心的違犯不算,如果盡力去做,仍辦不到,只要好好向上師解釋即 可,「如果一位上師不接受弟子如法的懺悔和解釋,他就犯了菩薩的根本戒」,佛法以慈悲為主,沒有一位好上師會故意叫弟子做些做不到的事,害他犯「三昧耶戒」的。

什麼是具德上師「真正歡喜」的事?

關於第三點,「讓上師歡喜的事,捨命也要去做」,法王對此補充說,首先要了解「什麼才是真正讓上師歡喜的事」,不要只是一味的供養、讚嘆;而且前提是,「這一定要是一位具德的上師」,因為一位具德的上師, 他歡喜的只有佛法,只會交付和「調伏心性」以及利他相關的事,這樣的事,當然要盡力去完成。

The shrine room at Tergar Monastery quickly filled to capacity with Taiwanese from the Hwa Hue Foundation, who sponsored the three day teaching, and Westerners. After the Taiwanese sang their particular musical rendition of Karmapa Chenno, His Holiness Karmapa entered and did three extremely long prostrations. I counted the seconds – up to 35 for each prostration. Then the group recited the Kagyu Linege prayer in Chinese and the major sponsors entered wearing orchid corsages and suits. They held large gold auspicious symbols and placed them on the shrine table. It was 30 minutes before the teaching could begin.

His Holiness began with a light remark: this was a way to test his dharma studies and his ability to speak in Chinese. The Taiwanese audience loved it and clapped after each segment of the talk. His Holiness let out a long audible sigh, to more laughter, and began. More clapping

From my notes:

Because of the difficulties in the economy, he said, and because of colds and flu, and all the difficulties in India, many people have cancelled. But you are real heroes for coming.

Like a mother inviting her children to a New Year’s dinner, I’m also making some food here, something hot and spicy, another taste. I hope this year there will be a new taste.

When we talk about the Lama or spiritual friend, we’re using a new word. We each have our own idea and don’t really understand what a Lama should be like. Each person has his own interpretation. Some people ask me to be their Root Guru and I have to put on a stern face and say ok. But whether what I am and what the student expects can come together is another question.

What is a Lama ? The Sanskrit for Lama is Guru, which means someone heavy with qualities, someone who has the qualities to be able to develop the student. We need to understand the meaning of this.

The basic characteristics are the same in each of the vehicles. The Lama has to be educated in the dharma of that vehicle. There are three aspects of the Lama according to Gampopa:

He must not be attached to this life.
Through his wisdom mastery he has to take care of students.
Through his compassion he never gives up on students
Not having attachment to this life means not thinking of the eight worldly dharmas. It is difficult to find someone who is entirely free of this.

The white worldly dharmas are performed by bodhisattvas. They may feel some pleasure when being praised but not much attachment. There are mixed white and black worldly dharmas; and then there are the black worldly dharmas, which means we think only of this life. This is the wrong sort of attachment.

Someone who has no clinging to this life will know how to lead us on the path of liberation.

Someone who only wants to satisfy the needs of this life is not a dharma practitioner. We need to benefit future lives. If we think only of this life we cannot develop. It’s difficult to find a Lama who really has no attachment to this life. So we have to find someone who has less attachment.

What does it mean to take care of others through great wisdom? Without wisdom the Lama will not know how to teach according to the students mind. He has to be able to teach many types of dharma.

The second characteristic of the Lama is to have the wisdom to teach students according to their needs. So if the Lama doesn’t understand the dharma themselves they cannot teach it to others. They have to learn wisdom and understand it from texts. It also has to fit with the student’s mind. It’s the wisdom to teach so they students can understand. Just knowing is not enough.

Thirdly, they must never give up on the students out of great compassion.

Dusum Kyenpa’s explanation: if the Lama thinks out of his benefit, the student will not get the benefit. He has to keep persevering with the student until the student has given up all obscurations.

If the Lama doesn’t have that kind of great compassion, he will give up on the student. They should have the kind of love and compassion even to give up their own lives for the students.

To wrap it up: the Lama needs to have more qualities than faults. Like a mother who loves but is uneducated, she tries to impart all good qualities, so a Lama should do that. He should have more qualities than faults.

We need to look at what the qualities of Lamas are. People even perceived faults in the Buddha.

It’s hard for us to know whether something is a quality or a fault. So we have to do it according to our capabilities. We have to ask other reliable people as well. We can’t see each and every quality for ourselves. It’s hard for us to take the measure of an individual, to see if they are acting out of the 8 worldly dharmas, or if they are looking to find happiness in future lives. We can only base it on outer conduct and how they present themselves. If the Lama helps to bring us closer to the dharma and we develop more faith, pure perception, and less obscurations, and if our mind really gets better, then we can say this is a Lama who has right conduct. When we meet this Lama and we feel we have come closer to the refuge, then it shows the Lama has great love and compassion.

If we feel joy we can see there are qualities there and that may be enough. Even if the Lama has only a few qualities, then he may be worthy of following.

Sometimes Lamas don’t have many qualities but there may be a reason to follow them. For example, Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche had to ask for transmissions from village Lamas. He had to teach some of them how to read first.

Teachers and students have to have a mutual connection like breathing the same air. Both have to know.

The qualities of the student according to Gampopa: the student has to bow down with respect that has no pride. He needs to be compatible with the Lama. He has to do whatever the Lama says without criticism.

There are two different ways to think about prostrating to a Lama with respect.

In the sutras it says the Lama is similar to the Buddha.

In the secret mantrayana, the Lama is the Buddha.

If we train in this we will eventually see the Lama as Buddha. It’s like exercise: we block seeing the faults and see only the qualities. If we train our minds we can develop this.

So we need to find the Lama who can show us the path. If we fall under the control of the afflictions, we won’t be able to develop anything. Taking birth is beyond our control, so is old age and death. It’s all because of our karma. The nature of our lives is prone to suffering. All our happiness ends in suffering.

When we have feelings of happiness it’s not authentic, it’s just like the relief of going from hot to cold. It’s not inherent pleasure.

Until we can purify the origins of the afflictions, we need to train under a Lama. Otherwise we will find only suffering. This is what it means to bow down to a Lama with respect, who can teach us the four noble truths. When we talk about viewing the Lama as a Buddha, it’s more than just a hope. We need to look at how to do it through scripture, logic and example.

Someone has to come and perform the activities of the Buddha and only the Lama can do it. All buddhas and bodhisattvas awaken to buddhahood through the wish to help all sentient beings. But to see it, we need faith, which is an interest in virtue. Then we can receive the activity of the Buddhas.

The instructions of the Buddha are passed down from Lama to Lama. The Lama is the support through whom we can receive the blessing of the Buddha.

For example, when Naropa first saw Tilopa we saw an old fisherman; and when Milarepa saw Marpa he saw an old farmer. A Lama is not someone sitting on a throne with a vajra. They may appear to us in different ways because of our karma. So when we see a Lama we cannot say who they are. What we see is not necessarily what it is. What we need to do is have faith and confidence in the Lama.

We need to put the words of the Lama into practice. This will please the Lama. We need to practice the dharma as much as we can to please the Lama.

When His Holiness was finished the discourse for the day, he smiled and waved to us, walking out of the room slowly, as if reluctant to leave so much brightness and warmth. He moved with great dignity in his footsteps and left the glow of great love in the room.

Norma Levine