法王新闻 | 2007年12月

藥師佛法會特別報導:藥師佛修持法門開示

Medicine Buddha teaching at the Mahabodhi Temple Complex, December 26, 2007

地點:印度 菩提迦耶 金剛座
時間:2007年12月26日
報導:噶舉祈願法會文宣組
攝影:噶瑪善治 / 噶瑪諾布 / 生命電視台

菩提心與大乘法

「菩提心妙寶,未生令生起,已生勿退轉,輾轉更增勝。」有些大乘法說的是成就菩提因,有些說的是菩提果,有些則是菩提道──成就菩提的方法,但是,根、道、果一切法都不離菩提心,一切都唯有修持菩提心。大乘或密乘的一切甚深儀軌,及息、增、懷、誅一切事業.都必須有菩提心為基礎。遍知具義一切法皆須配合菩提心。

積福、招福等祈求此生圓滿的修持本身,雖然不是成就遍知的法門,但若能融合菩提心的大乘知見,則能幫助我們成就遍知的果位。總之,一個法門是否能成就遍知,完全要看它是否具有菩提心的基礎。只有空性觀而沒有菩提心的法門,不能算是大乘法門。我們要一起修持三天的藥師法也是一樣。

就現前而言,修持藥師佛能得長壽無病;就究竟而言,修持藥師法門能達遍知果位。但是,唯有配合菩提心的修持,藥師法才能稱得上是大乘法門。

中文法本第32頁提到:「修此法時,應於藥師佛像前,盡力陳設曼達等上妙供品,以積聚資糧。若無法如此,可觀想於對生虛空變現供養。本軌乃無上密法,修持者無須斷酒肉及淨身,然必須先獲得本法之灌頂與口傳。修持時,自、對生同時觀想,如舊教法:勿須各別作觀,應如舊教法之隨誦隨觀。」

這是洽美仁波切撰作這天法時說道,本法雖然屬於事部密續,但也屬於無上瑜伽,所以修持者不須特別淨身、斷酒、斷肉等,而且必須同時觀想對生和自生本尊。這法門可說是極其精隨的法門,修持者必須具足信心。為了幫助大家升起大信心,我要先為大家講述藥師佛儀軌的歷史。

藥師佛法的歷史

早期印度有許多關於藥師佛的經典後來流傳到西藏後。如同昨天灌頂時提到的,世尊在王舍城時,曾對八萬菩薩、阿羅漢等會眾宣說,當時會眾中有三萬菩薩、大乘天人、虔達婆、阿素羅、龍王等,都聚集一處。當時,佛陀對會眾宣說了前善、中善、後善等時時善妙的法門。文殊菩薩從會眾中站起來,對佛陀說:末法時期的眾生會有各種內外的痛苦,懇求世尊宣說藥師佛法,讓眾生在聽聞到在藥師佛法時,都能成就功德,除滅痛苦。佛陀因此宣說了藥師佛法門。凡是能在藥師佛前祈請的,痛苦即能消滅。

諸佛菩薩的願力不同,因此有和願力相符的各種法門。藥師佛法是針對有身心疾病障礙及面臨死亡的法。佛陀宣說各種藥師法門之後,梵天、帝釋天、為數各十萬的十二藥叉等,發願守護任何持誦藥師名號者。這些藥師經中都有提到。

藥師經不是初轉法輪時所說的法。佛陀在這世間宣說藥師經時,阿難尊者在會眾之中,而他是在佛成道七年之後才見到佛陀的,因此藥師經可說是二轉法輪時所說的法。佛陀宣說藥師經時同時涵蓋甚深見及廣及見的法,因此也屬於三轉法輪的法。就密續而言,藥師法屬於事部密續中的如來部。

西藏原本信奉苯波教等地方信仰。苯波教的歷史悠久,在藏王雅赤桑波(YatriSenpo)時就已經盛行。藏王松贊干布時,許多水晶佛塔等吉祥物從天而降,正法開始流傳。當時,佛陀教法雖然還沒有分類,但經典已開始流傳,並沿用供燈、銀杯等苯教的供養方法。佛像、佛塔、經堂等外在象徵,也開始流傳。當時可能沒有真正的僧眾,但有徒眾聚集一處行善、修誦及持守符合佛法律儀和戒律的情況。五代之後,藏王松贊干布時興建桑耶寺,並附設譯經院,延請譯師翻譯各種經典。此外,三百位善士一起剃度出家,佛法因而興盛。

藥師法門是在堪布菩提薩埵(梵文,Shantarakshita;藏文,KhenpoBodhisattava)時開始流傳。堪布菩提薩埵是中印度人,可能是王子,後來出家修行。被藏王赤松德贊迎請到西藏宏揚佛法之後,堪布菩提薩埵為了幫助大眾消除疾病障礙及積聚資糧而撰著多部藥師佛的修誦儀軌。儀軌分為廣、中、略等不同的版本,中軌流傳最為廣泛。因此,藥師法可說是在印信大師時開始在西藏流傳的。這段歷史屬於前宏期時代。

後宏期時,噶當派源流的阿底俠尊者父子來到西藏弘法。阿底俠尊者非常重視藥師佛儀軌的修持,使藥師法更為興盛。藥師佛以化身佛示現,因此藥師法屬於密續事部,但修持次第屬於無上密續。我們修誦的天法儀軌也是基於事部,但由於涵蓋無上密續的緣故,得受無上密續的灌頂之後才能修持。

修持藥師法的功德利益

修持藥師法的利益非常多,但實際的利益取決於信心。信心指對佛、法、僧、父續、母續等一切解脫種子或解脫道的信心。一般而言,信心可分為淨信、勝解信,及知取捨的信心。信心通常是在見到功德之後,心中感到歡喜及產生嚮往而升起的。信心也可分為上根、中根和下根。下根的信心是普通的信心,上根的信心是無量、不動搖的信心。在西藏是屬於密法所調伏的地方,而被密法調伏的眾生大都著重信心,而較少著重智慧。因此,這種情況有一定的好處,但也有危險性。

平時,向三寶及上師祈請時,我們都期盼願望會實現。有些人為了希望生意興隆而努力地供燈或做其他供養,或請求寺院修護法。但是,即便有大神通,護法也無法因為這樣的祈請而使事情立刻發生,因為護法也必須遵照因果的規則,否則護法無法行使任何事業。努力供養一段時期但卻見不到效果之後,某些人可能會因此認為這護法是假的,甚至要修法的僧人退錢。像這樣的信心是基於無知,對因果業報的道理沒什麼了解。因果業報是無法任意改變的,否則佛陀就能隨心所欲地讓六道眾生都不受業力的果報。

當然,我們經常在持誦「願一切眾生皆遠離痛苦及苦因,願一切眾生皆得樂及樂因」,但這並無法立即實現,不是像把坐墊擺一擺,請人過來坐,馬上就給予他快樂。然而,這樣的祈願並非毫無用處,這如同立下追尋的標準,然後基於對這標準的信心而努力。這並不表示大家的信心沒有意義,而是說明信心是有條件的,是因為知道其中的道理和原因而升起的。這就好像用泥土做佛像,剛開始時捏出來的佛像可能醜陋不堪,但慢慢地練習之後,捏出來的佛像會愈來愈好看,最後達到標準。

信奉佛、信奉法也必須基於了解。如果這世間上沒有佛、沒有法,而我們卻說有,那就是迷信;但佛和法確實存在,如果我們說沒有,那就是愚痴。

同樣地,了解上師具有的功德之後,我們才能對上師升起清淨、圓滿的信心。對上師的信心包括如實地了解上師所說,不誇大、不虛假,否則那就是造作的信心。

修持三皈依處、藥師佛與壇城聖眾的利益是什麼?從前,止奔嘎惹大師在阿里地區有一個經堂,這經堂現在是古蹟勝地。他在那裡著作了一部禮讚藥師佛的儀軌,其中一句提到只要聽聞到藥師佛的名號就能淨除痛苦。在這儀軌中,藥師佛共七位,稱為藥師七如來。經續典籍都提到,藥師如來儀軌是由藥師七如來心緒中流出的,是佛直接加持的。這也可說是因藥師七佛的共同願力而成的。

從前康區哲霍有一座寺院,非常富有,但是僧眾教育程度不高。有一天,一群僧眾在修持藥師儀軌時,念誦到「頂禮藥師琉璃光」這一句時,「琉璃」這個字用的是梵音「貝珠雅」,大家都不知道怎麼唸,於是到處去問,最後找上一位有學問的僧人。這位僧人其實也不懂,但由於大家都認為他很有學問,他就一本正經地看了一下,然後拿一個康巴話「貝崔雅」--冒煙--來搪塞。於是,大家都很高興地照唸。當然,這是個笑話,可是只要誠心修誦藥師儀軌確實就能遠離惡道、解除痛苦、成就祈願。這也正是佛陀宣說藥師法門的目的。

藥師佛的觀修

末法時期,或稱為五濁惡世,眾生會有各種障礙,除了一般所說的煩惱障和所知障之外,前所未見的新障礙和愚痴也會相繼產生。現代人想到過去時,往往以為古人比我們愚痴,可是反觀歷史,古人可能比我們更有智慧。新時代的眾生有各種業力的覆障,有各種新起的疾病和痛苦。末法時,佛教也會衰敗,許多咒語的力量也會減弱。然而,藥師佛法門是特別為末法時代的眾生宣說的,由於佛的願力,藥師咒的力量在末法時期反而更加強大。總之,藥師咒是阿難尊者為了幫助末法時期的眾生對治疾病而請佛宣說的,因此對惡世眾生的利益特別強大。藥師咒尤其能對治猛烈的疾病,例如各種瘟疫,並能幫助病者盡速復元。因此,在我們這時代修持藥師法和咒語的利益特別強大,勝於其他修本尊法和咒語。

當我們得病時,有些疾病是可治療的,但有些疾病是無法治療的。此外,就醫的條件也有地域上的差別,有些地方幅員廣大,求醫不易;也有些地方,醫療落後。在這種狀況下,若能修誦藥師儀軌將可獲得間接的醫療利益。

顯密經續都含有藥師法門。在顯乘或經部方面,除了藥師經之外,堪布菩提薩埵也著作了屬於經部的藥師儀軌。密乘的事部瑜伽密續中也有許多和藥師佛有關的修持儀軌。因此,藥師法是顯密共有的法門。

《藥師琉璃光法流儀軌》一開始就提到本軌應該「隨誦隨觀」,也就是要一邊唸誦一邊觀想的。有些密續儀軌是先唸誦再觀想,有些則是先觀想再唸誦的。但,本軌是一邊唸誦一邊觀想。

儀軌中「禮敬三寶三根本,皈依一切皈依處」是皈依,「為令眾生悉成佛,今發殊勝菩提心」是發心。接下來,從「從本淨界所化現」一直到「祈不失樂平等捨」的六句是供養。接著,一切都化為空性。從「空性所化三千界」開始,是觀想的部分。

觀想藥師佛時,藥師七如來的身如同一切如來身,具足一切相好。藥師佛全身是藍色的,如同琉璃,但有些人認為琉璃是白色、黃色或其他顏色。然而,此處的琉璃並非具體的物質。雖然典籍中並沒有確切提到藥師佛的身色是藍色,但傳承祖師大德多認為藥師佛身是藍色的,因此將藥師佛觀為藍色應該是沒有過錯的。

藥師佛身穿三法衣,以化身相示現。觀想時,對生和自生要同時觀修。自身是藥師佛,對空蓮花座上也安坐著相好的藥師七佛及經卷,後面有十六大菩薩、十方庇世神、十二藥叉等。此處的經卷是《大般若經》,在密續中,經卷以經書的樣式顯現,在某些經典中或以手印或其他方式代表。此外,十六菩薩眾及梵天、帝釋等十位庇世神等,雖然在經典中沒有提到,但在祖師儀軌中如此提到。

壇城聖眾所在的無量宮殿或越量宮,顯密的說法有些不同。在密乘中,越量宮是黃色的,有些典籍說觀想必須清晰,有些則認為由於法性的力量,升起意念就可以了。

接下來是迎請佛、法、僧等壇城聖眾降臨。迎請時,自身及對身藥師佛心中放光到淨土迎請他們降臨。有些人對「法」如何降臨有些疑問,若是這樣,可觀想佛帶著教證一切法一起降臨。

降臨之後,是祈請安坐及賜予灌頂。接著是供養,花、香、燈、塗、果、樂、五妙欲等。在儀軌中,這段供養文是以梵音持誦的。接下來是供養八吉祥、七珍寶、四大洲、八小洲等,也就是獻曼達,然後是浴佛、拭佛、供袈裟、讚嘆等。讚嘆時,首先讚嘆藥師佛,然後十六菩薩、十庇世神、十二藥叉等越量宮中一切本尊與眷從。

讚嘆之後,觀想自生及對生藥師佛心中都有一個「吽」字,周圍有藥師咒語環繞,然後持誦藥師咒。持咒之後,觀想對生藥師佛融入自生藥師佛,合而為一。接著是吉祥誦和迴向。

儀軌最後一段,中文法本第三十六頁,提到修誦本儀軌的種種功德利益:「僧眾免於毀犯戒律;偶一毀犯,還得清淨,不墮惡趣;三惡道業,亦得清淨,不生於彼,亦可迅速解脫,轉生善趣,漸成佛果。且此生衣食無缺,財物豐足;病魔、咒詛、王法等虐.悉皆消滅。並蒙金剛手、梵天、帝釋、四大天王及十二藥叉大將,與其七十萬眷眾之護衛,而可免於十八種非時死,……」

若我們了解這些功德而升起淨信或勝解信,並以這樣的信心修持藥師儀軌將會有很大的利益。

接著,法王給予儀軌的口傳。

HH Gyalwang Karmapa spent one session teaching on the Medicine Buddha sadhana, ‘A Sadhana of Menlha, Compiled from the Clear Expanse of Mind, A Mind Treasure Found Within the Sky of Dharma Texts called, “A Stream of Vaidurya”.’

He began by emphasizing that bodhicitta is the most important factor in one’s practice. Only through bodhicitta can one attain enlightenment, and whether one’s practice is a Mahayana practice or not is determined by one’s motivation of bodhicitta. Everything is connected with bodhicitta; there is nothing that is not. May the bodhicitta arise in those where it does not exist, and may it increase more and more in those where it does exist.

Then, Gyalwang Karmapa talked about the origins and history of the Medicine Buddha Sutra. Lord Buddha taught the Medicine Buddha Sutra in Vaishali to a gathering of 80,000 monks, 36,000 bodhisattvas, Chenrezig, Vajrapani, Manjushri, devas, humans and non-humans, and his teachings were good in the beginning, middle and end. It was Manjushri who stood up in the assembly and requested Shakyamuni Buddha to teach the Medicine Buddha practice to those beings who have inner and outer sufferings, and who live in the midst of degenerate times.

Gyalwang Karmapa went on to discuss Tibetan Buddhist history from the time of the first king, Nyatri Tsenpo, when the Bon religion existed in Tibet, and how Buddhism came to Tibet from India at the time of the great King Songtsen Gampo, and the pre-eminent translator Thonmi Sambhota, who began to render texts into Tibetan at that time.

Gyalwang Karmapa described the time of King Trisong Deutsen and the construction of Tibet’s first monastery of Samye. There was no monastic sangha in Tibet at that time, but Shantarakshita who came from Eastern India brought the Sarvastivadin lineage to Tibet and began to ordain a small number of virtuous people into the monastic tradition. He did so as a test to see whether they could uphold monastic discipline.

It was also Shantarakshita who first promulgated and practised Medicine Buddha in Tibet, to help the King. He offered the King the short, middle and long practices, and the King chose the middle length practice. After Shantarakshita, Atisha DIpankara, who founded the Kadampa tradition, spread the Medicine Buddha practice, and it was through him that the practices of the 16 Arhats and Medicine Buddha spread throughout Tibet and became very important.

Gyalwang Karmapa explained that generally such practices as Medicine Buddha belong to the Kriya Yoga class of Tantra, but some Kriya Yoga practices are related to Anuttarayoga Tantra. This Gong-ter or Mind Treasure Medicine Buddha sadhana, although based on Kriya Yoga, is an Anuttarayoga Tantra practice and more specifically belongs to the class of Ati Yoga practices. For this reason, an empowerment and transmission are needed to practice it.

Next, Gyalwang Karmapa discussed the benefits of the practice. He said that faith and trust in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha is the seed of enlightenment or liberation, but he cautioned against blind faith and the faith that just prays for and expects desired results without having proper cause. Faith develops gradually, like making a clay image which begins as a rough shape only. It is important to understand the reasons why faith and trust can develop and become genuine.

Atisha made strong prayers that whomsoever would hear the name of Medicine Buddha would be rid of the sufferings of the lower realms. The name of Medicine Buddha is so powerful that it has the capacity to clear the sufferings of beings, especially in this degenerate age. The Medicine Buddha Sutra states that in the time when deadly new diseases appear and are hard to cure, the power of Medicine Buddha will become even stronger. It is said that the practice may even have the power to revive people who have already died. Although other mantras may lose their power in degenerate times, the Medicine Buddha mantra becomes more powerful, and it is especially important to recite it during these times.

Some diseases can benefit from medicine, but some cannot. In some places there are hundreds of sick beings and very few doctors, so there can be little treatment. In these cases, Medicine Buddha practice can be dedicated to those suffering beings.

Gyalwang Karmapa said that the Medicine Buddha practice can be included in either Sutra or Tantra, but Shantarakshita based the practice in the Sutra tradition. Many sadhanas are based in Tantra, and many Medicine Buddha practices are included in Kriya Yoga Tantra, so it is also not out of place if it is included in the Tantra. Gyalwang Karmapa also explained that, since the practice comes from the Nyingma tradition, recitation of the words and meditation upon the meaning should be done concurrently; meditation should not follow the recitation.

Then, Gyalwang Karmapa briefly went through the sadhana itself and described the sections beginning with refuge and the receiving of blessings. He explained that the self visualization and front visualization should be performed at the same time, but that as the practice is primarily included in the Sutra tradition, visualization does not need to be as precise and clear as in the Vajrayana. Then followed the invitation, bestowing of offerings and praise sections. During the mantra recitation, Gyalwang Karmapa said to focus the mind on the mantra rosary in the hearts of the self and front visualizations radiating light, and then to recite the mantra with good concentration.

Finally he gave the lung for the practice.