法王新闻 | 2007年12月

專訪法王談第二十五屆噶舉大祈願法會

An Interview and Discussion with HH Gyalwang Karmapa on the Great Kagyu Monlam Aspiration December 13, 2007

地點:印度 菩提迦耶 德噶寺
時間:2007年12月13日
報導:Jo Gibson / 陳玲瓏

二○○七年十二月十三日,第二十五屆噶舉大祈願法會三天前,法王噶瑪巴在德噶寺接受文宣組訪問。
The Gyalwang Karmapa kindly gave the following interview at Tergar Monastery on 13th December, at the 25th Great Monlam Aspiration of the Glorious Unequaled Kagyu Sangha (Pal Nyammay Kagyupay Sangha Monlam Chenmo).

問:法王,請您解釋一下「祈願」的意思是什麼?
Q : Your Holiness, please could you explain the meaning of the word monlam?

法王:從心的角度來看,「祈願」有好幾個不同的解釋;但是,從個人的角度來說,「祈願」是深切地期望帶給他人喜悅和安樂,同時也深切地期望自己的善業增長,並將此善業迴向一切眾都獲得喜悅和安樂。這種深切期望的夢就是「祈願」。
GK : From the perspective of mind, the meaning of monlam can be explained in several ways. From the perspective of the individual it means having the profound wish [or aspiration] to bring happiness and well-being to others and simultaneously enhance our own root of virtue, dedicating that merit for the benefit of all sentient beings. That type of [wish-fulfilling] dream is monlam.

問:「祈願」的重要性是什麼?
Q : What is its importance?

法王:一般而言,人類文化所有的重要發展大多起源於希望和清晰的遠見。從佛教的觀點來看,我們的究竟目標是達到涅槃。在這過程當中,「祈願」是根本 要件,扮演三重的角色。開始時,它像是種子;在中間時期,它像是水和肥料;最後,它是果實。若沒有「祈願」,成佛的種子不會發芽。
GK : Generally speaking, all major developments in human culture have come about as the result of hope and a clear vision. From the Buddhist point of view, our ultimate goal is to attain parinirvana; in this process, the role of aspiration is fundamental and threefold. At the beginning it is like the seed, in the middle it is like water and manure, and at the end it is the fruit. Without an aspiration the seed of Buddhahood will not germinate.

問:今年的祈願法會有什麼特色?
Q : Are there any special features of this year’s Monlam?

法王噶瑪巴:由於今年是噶舉大祈願法會的二十五週年,我們特別提供免費醫療服務以利益地方人士。此外,由於噶舉大祈願法會已經成為國際性的盛會,世界各地 人士齊聚一堂,今年的法會持誦儀軌以五種語言印行──藏文、印度文、英文、中文及韓文。我認為這兩項是最重要的特色。
GK : Because we are celebrating the 25th anniversary of Kagyu Monlam this year, we are offering free medical treatment to help local people. In addition, because the Kagyu Monlam has become an international event, which aims to bring the peoples of the world together, this year the Monlam, recitation texts are available in five languages: Tibetan, Hindi, English, Chinese and Korean. I consider these two the most important special features.

問:今年法會首次使用梵文的祈請文,可否請您進一步說明?
Q : Sanskrit prayers are being used for the first time this Monlam. Please could you expand on this?

法王:梵文佛教典籍是藏傳佛教的根據。因此,在過去,西藏佛教學者認為梵文非常重要,除了學習梵文之外,他們也研習梵文佛教典籍。但是,大約三百五 十年前,第五世達賴喇嘛時期,印度和西藏之間的聯繫中斷。從此以後,維持梵文知識水準變得相當困難,正確、清純的發音等也隨著失落。今天我們身在印度,西 藏人再度開始學習及研究梵文典籍,並有機會和印度學者研討。這項發展對印度和西藏的關係非常重要,我覺得維持這項關係是非常重要的。因此,我們持誦梵文祈 請文以祈願這項關係永世不斷。此外,以梵文持誦祈請文,讓我們超越時空而感受佛陀時代佛法的德輝。我祈願我們能達到這目的。
GK : Our Tibetan dharma is based on the Sanskrit canon. So, in times past, Tibetan Buddhist scholars considered Sanskrit to be very important; they studied the language and also studied Buddhist scriptures in the original Sanskrit. But,from the time of the Fifth Dalai Lama, about three hundred and fifty years ago, the ties between India and Tibet were broken. Afterwards, it became difficult to maintain the standard of our knowledge of Sanskrit and so things such as pure pronunciation were lost. However, now that we are in India, Tibetans have begun to study and research texts in Sanskrit once more, and are involved in discussion with Indian Sanskrit scholars too. This development is very important for the Indo-Tibetan relationship and, I feel, it is essential that it be maintained. Thus, we are reciting prayers in Sanskrit so that the relationship may continue forever. Furthermore, by reciting in Sanskrit, we can transcend time, generating a feeling of closeness with the Buddhism of the time of Lord Buddha. It is my aspiration that we can achieve this.

問:今年男女僧眾都接受律儀的特別訓練,請問目的是什麼?
Q : This year monks and nuns have received special training in codes of conduct.What was the purpose?

法王:生活在二十一世紀,外在干擾很多,所以我們須要維持穩定的方法。如果我們被這些干擾牽制,我們將失去自我約束的能力。培養合宜的舉止,以帶來 身心的安樂,是祈願法會的目的之一。由於僧團是祈願法會的主要參與者,因此我們運用出自律典的方法,給予他們這項特別訓練。
GK : In the twenty-first century there are many external distractions, so we need a way to remain stable. If we are carried away by these distractions we will lose our self-restraint. In order to instill proper conduct and to bring well-being and peace of mind, we have this Monlam. Using ancient methods from the Vinaya, we are training the sangha members because they are the principal participants in the Monlam.

這套律儀是融合古代佛教傳統而制定的,但目的並不是只為了利益某一宗教,而是要為整體社會帶來穩定與安樂。最近,在西藏及西藏地區外,某些僧團成員的不當行為,成為社會安全及和樂的威脅。因此,我們這麼做的目的也是為了服務人類。
This code of conduct, based on ancient Buddhist traditions, is not intended to serve the interests of one religious tradition alone, but to bring stability and happiness to society at large. Recently, the misconduct of some members of the sangha, both inside and outside Tibet, has become a threat to the security and well-being of society. Thus, we have done this as a service to humanity.

問:噶舉大祈願法會如何能幫助眾生安樂及世界和平?
Q : How does the Kagyu Monlam help the well-being of sentient beings and world peace?

法王:幾年來,噶舉大祈願法會已成為大眾聚集的盛會,因此力量非常強大。如果我們能以自身行為感動他人,逐漸地,藉由這樣的聚會,我們將能利益整個 人類社會。例如,如果我們能使一位壞人轉變為好人,那麼我們就成功地使壞人的數量減低一位,而對世界和平有所幫助。法會自己本身絕對沒有改變世界的力量, 但是我們可以利用祈願法會散播一切眾生都有權利享受這世界的訊息,把慈悲的訊息散佈到整個世界。
GK : Over the years, Kagyu Monlam has become a great assembly of people, and as such, it is very powerful. If we can win people over by our example, then, gradually, through this assembly, we will benefit the whole of human society. For example, if we can change one bad person into a good person, we will have been successful in reducing the number of bad people in the world by one, and thus will have helped world peace. There is no way that Kagyu Monlam on its own has the power to bring peace to all sentient beings, but we can use the Monlam as a way of broadcasting the message that the world is something that all sentient beings have the right to enjoy, a message of loving kindness, compassion and peace to the whole world.

問:不動佛修法是今年大祈願法會的重要項目之一。選擇這項法的理由是什麼?
Q : The Akshobhya Ritual plays an important part in this year’s Monlam. Is there any reason why this was chosen?

法王:談到不動佛修法的理由時,我們必須思惟三種不同的業。
GK : When looking at the reason for the Akshobhya Ritual, we need to consider three different karmas.

首先,有史以來這世間就有漁夫和獵人,但是在當今這時代,漁獵運作的規摸如此龐大,一日之內就能全盤滅絕某種動物。雖然這世界具有持續極久必要的有利條件,但是由於廣泛地應用高科技,我們造業的力量增加這麼地多,我們步入了毀滅整個世界的過程。
First, from time immemorial, there have been hunters and fishermen but nowadays they operate on such a vast scale that a whole species can be almost wiped out in a day. Although the world has the favorable conditions necessary to last for a long time, because of the extensive use of advanced technology, our power to accumulate karma has multiplied so much that we are now in the process of destroying the world itself.

我們必須思惟的第二種業是對治。為了抵制這種強大的業,我們須要有更為強大的對治方法。方法其實非常多,有已知的,也有未知的。但佛陀開示過,不動佛修法是清淨強大業力的方法當中,力量最強大的。因此,不動佛是力量和事業。
The second karma to consider is the antidote. In order to counteract this powerful karma we need a stronger counter-measure. There are many methods, both known and unknown. However, the Lord Buddha taught that the Akshobhya Ritual is the most powerful for purifying strong karma; therefore Lord Akshobhya is the power and the activity.

第三種業是這樣的:強大的業須要強大的對治。但是,木頭和斧頭之間必須有連結,只是同時具有這兩者並沒有效用,必須有人把這兩者之間的業連結起來。
The third karma is this. For a powerful karma there must be a powerful antidote. But, like a piece of wood and an axe, there has to be a link, a connecting factor; simply having the two together has no effect. There has to be someone to make the necessary karmic connection between the two.

由於有這麼多人在祈願法會做廣大的祈願,這種力量非常強大。這主要是因為參與者來自岡倉噶舉傳承,和噶瑪巴有深切的因緣,而噶瑪巴受金剛不動佛的加持,是 不動佛部的一員。某位特定的佛,例如釋迦牟尼佛,可能無法調伏某一些眾生,但是沒有一個眾生不被一切諸佛所調伏。噶瑪巴是諸佛事業的總集和體現,不是嗎? 這就是這項修法的理由。我的祈願是每個人都得到不動佛的三種成就:力量、慈悲和加持。
Because so many people at the Kagyu Monlam have made vast aspirations, there is great power. Primarily the participants are from Khamtsang Kagyu and have a very strong connection with the Karmapa, and Karmapa is a being who has been blessed by Vajra Akshobhya and therefore is a member of Akshobyha’s family. It is possible that one particular Buddha such as Lord Shakyamuni might be unable to tame a given individual, but there is no individual who cannot be tamed by one of the Buddhas. The Karmapa is the embodiment of the activity of all the Buddhas, is he not? So that is the reason for having this ritual; it is my aspiration that everyone will receive the threefold siddhis of Akshobyha’s power, compassion and blessing.