法王新闻 | 2007年12月

特別召見參加祈願法會的比丘尼眾

The Gyalwang Karmapa Welcomes Gelongmas to the Tibetan Tradition (December 13, 2007, Tergar Monastery)

地點:印度 菩提迦耶 德噶寺
時間:2007年12月13日
報導:Jo Gibson
攝影:Lama Tubten

12月13日,早上,法王噶瑪巴於德噶寺法王私人會客室,特別召見前來參加噶舉祈願法會的比丘尼眾。法王噶瑪巴表示歡迎大家前來參與法會。針對邀請比丘尼們前來參加祈願法會的原因,法王特別給予了一簡短的開示。

法王說道,從2004年起,他便開始著手祈願法會的工作,為了前來參加法會的僧眾,他制定了一些新的僧伽規範。從中,法王看到了藏傳比丘尼存在的問題。便開始嘗試著想要在經律中找出方法、依據來幫助解決藏傳比丘尼的問題。

法王談到,從他開始著手祈願法會事務的第一年起,就為了比丘尼做了一些準備。之後,法王也繼續地在經律上做多方與比丘尼相關議題的研究。法王覺得,他越是深入研究,就越加地關心比丘尼的問題。

法王:『雖依佛制,還是小沙彌身份的我是無權拜閱比丘尼律典的,但身為一傳承的持有者,覺得自己的責任重大,對自己研讀比丘尼律典的事,就此情況而言應是可以被開許的,因此也就繼續地研讀了。在研讀之後,深覺得如果藏傳佛教中也有比丘尼的制度那將會是很好的,如果也有比丘尼的僧團,對尼眾姐妹而言,那也將會是很幸福的。』

藏傳比丘尼議題,遲至今日尚無法解決,其最主要的原因有二:僧伽的基礎是依據律典的,而律典是不能輕易更改的。就如同一個國家的法律,也不是說改就能改的,這是需要一些時間的。另一方面,有些藏人持有固執保守的思想,有男眾是優於女眾的觀念,因此也認為只要有比丘就足夠了,不認為有建立比丘尼僧團的需要。

法王又說到:『而今,比丘尼的出席參與噶舉祈願法會,可以讓大家看到比丘尼眾的威德,我想這也是很重要的。這也是鼓勵大家,共同參與建立未來藏傳比丘尼僧團的實際行動。而這也是在座每位共同的責任。』

法王勉勵比丘尼眾須盡一份心力來負起建立未來藏傳比丘尼僧團的責任,在祈願法會中能表現的如法如儀。

最後,法王代表祈願法會組織贈送每位前來參加法會的比丘尼一全套的僧服資具。法王也祝福每位比丘尼們都能健康無礙地參與全程的法會活動。此次的特別召見,在法王噶瑪巴與比丘尼眾合影後結束。

今年參加此次祈願法會的比丘尼們,在法會之前三天將接受如同比丘的律儀訓練及考試。於法會中必須全程參與法會活動,如布薩、祈願誦唸、吃缽飯、過午不食、托缽等律儀規定,並且不得無故缺席。

13 December, 2007: This year, there is a strict code of conduct which all gelong and gelongma attending Kagyu Monlam must observe. All gelong and gelongma will have undergone three days training and a test in this code of conduct. During the Monlam they will be expected to attend every Monlam session, including the daily Sojong. They will eat only from the alms bowl, not eat after midday, and, on the final day, they must join the Alms Procession.

At a special meeting for gelongma (Sanskrit: Bhiksuni), held in his private room at Tergar Monastery this morning, the Gyalwang Karmapa welcomed everyone who had come to attend the 25th Kagyu Monlam. He then gave a short talk, discussing the reasons why he had specially invited the gelongma to attend the Kagyu Monlam.

He recounted how, in 2004, when he took on the responsibility of overseeing the running of Kagyu Monlam, he began looking into the Vinaya and researching codes of conduct.

The Tibetan sangha has both gelong (fully ordained monks) and getsul (novices) but no gelongma (fully ordained nuns) only getsulma (novices). Yet, there are many gelongma from other traditions who don Tibetan robes. Because of his concern over the absence of the gelongma ordination in the Tibetan tradition, he began searching the Sutras and the Vinaya, looking more closely into the issues, trying to find a way in which he could help the gelongma. The more he studied, the more his interest and concern grew.

There was, however, an obstacle to this research, because, according to the Vinaya, a getsul is not supposed to study the gelong and gelongma Vinaya, and he himself was a getsul. However, because he is a doctrine holder and holds a position of great responsibility, he did study these texts, trusting that he would not incur any fault. After studying the issue, he felt deeply that if there were a gelongma sangha in the Tibetan tradition, it would be a glorious achievement.

Gyalwang Karmapa cited two reasons why it had been difficult to establish a gelongma ordination lineage in the Tibetan tradition.

Firstly, the Vinaya is the foundation upon which the Buddhist sangha relies, so changes are difficult to make. The constitution of a country cannot be changed immediately, but it can be changed through a lengthy process. Similarly, the Vinaya could be changed, but the process would be very slow. Hence, it would have been difficult to start the tradition of gelongma in Tibet.

Secondly, there is the inflexibility of some members of the sangha who think that there is no need for gelongma.

However, the Gyalwang Karmapa explained, it was his hope that the participation of gelongma in Kagyu Monlam, would eventually lead to the establishment of a gelongma sangha in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, because their excellent conduct would bear witness to all of the grace of the gelongma tradition. He reminded them that they therefore had a responsibility to live up to these expectations.

Finally, he said he prayed that all the nuns would stay well and that no obstacles would arise, so that they could attend the Monlam from beginning to end.

He concluded by offering each gelongma a complete set of robes.