法王新闻 | 2007年01月

法王接受「全球一體計劃 」的專訪

日期:2007年
地點:印度 上密院
媒體:Global Oneness Project
中譯:金吉祥女

Q1﹕What does oneness mean in the context of Tibetan Buddhism?

A1﹕The source and basis of what we call onenss or unity is ultimately the mind., it is a way of thinking. The Tibetan Buddhist perspective of this concept is influenced by their current socio-historical situation. Tibetans have recently endured a great deal of adversity.

Over a hundred-thousand Tibetans have had to recently resettle in India and other countries.

This refugee community has survived by replying on the concept of oneness, of a unified Tibetan people.

In a similar way, Tibetan Buddhists have begun to view, understand, and respond to their own religious tradition with a heightened sense of oneness [non-sectarianism].

For example, in our society within the general large assemblies we have very little freedom to pass binding laws, implement large changes, or sustain major projects. As members of a government, we have few legal rights, and there is little holding us together politically. Yet, even so, our society has been able to live in a unite way, a way of oneness.

This is due to our trust in one another, our shared hopes, and our faith. This is how we are able to remain united as a culture and people.

1. 問:「一體 」(oneness)在藏傳佛教內涵中的意義為何?

法王:我們所謂的「一體 」或「同體」(unity)最終是與心相關的一種思維的方式。西藏佛教徒對這個概念的看法受到目前他們所處的社會歷史的狀況所影響。西藏人近年來承受了許多的磨難。有超過十萬的西藏人必須在印度以及其他的國家重新安家落戶。

這個西藏難民社區依賴著「一體 」、「聯合統一的西藏人民」這樣的概念而生存了下來。相似地,西藏的佛教徒也開始以逐漸增強的「一體 」意識來看待、理解、與回應自身的宗教傳統。舉例而言,在我們的社會眾多的團體中,我們有極少的自由可以通過約束法案、推動大的改變、或是維持大的計劃。 做為公眾團體的一員﹐我們擁有極少的法律權力,在政治上幾乎是沒有任何能令我們團結一體的力量。但是,即使如此,我們的社會還是能夠以一種團結的方式、一 體的方式而生活著。

這是基於我們對於彼此的信任、我們共享的希望、與我們的信念,使得我們仍然可以
團結一體地凝聚成一個文化與民族。

Q2﹕How is oneness experienced?

A2﹕The power of oneness, that is to say unity, begins as an internal experience. It comes from the mind’s way of thinking or discerning. It is intelligent discernment that gives power to oneness. We have studied and meditated a great deal on the way things truly are, or ultimate truth. This kind of study and mediation contributes to an ability to conceptualize unity, sustain a holistic way of thinking, and foster an all-inclusive, and broad universal vision.

Then what about the individual’s relationship to society:
How an individual serves society, and how society serves the individual?
There are many qualities an individual needs to contribute to societal unity and oneness.
Most importantly, an individual needs courage and willingness to sacrifice for the good of the community and society as a whole. In turn, society needs to exist for the good for each individual. Thus when society and the individuals that make up society are mutually supportive, mutually self-sacrificing, social unity and harmony is possible.

2. 問:如何能夠體驗到「一體 」﹖

法王:「一體 」或是「同體 」的力量始於內在的經驗。它來自於心的思維或是辨別方式。智性的思辨給予「一體 」力量。我們對於事物的真相,或是實相,做許多的研究和禪定思維,而這種學習和禪思有助于對「一體 」的智性理解、維持整體圓融的思維方式、以及培養包容萬物開闊的宇宙觀。

那麼個人與社會的關係又是如何的呢﹖個人如何服務社會,社會又如何服務個人﹖
個人必須具備許多的特質才能對社會的整體與一體有所貢獻。最重要的是,個人必須具備有為社會整體的利益而犧牲的勇氣與意願。相對的,社會必須是為了每一個 個人的利益而存在。因此,當社會以及社會當中的個體能彼此扶持,互相自我犧牲時,社會的一體與和諧是有可能的。

Q3﹕How can we deal with everyday distractions?

A3﹕External things, why they can not hold on to us, our experiences is that we become compulsively attached to them. These days, there is a lot to distract us due to the proliferation of technology. Because of this proliferation, we are increasingly exposed to external distractions capable of seducing and distracting the mind. Its seems we are living in an age of tremendous growth and expansion.

However, we need to consider this: are external things really distracting us? Are the things at fault? Or it is that our mind is clinging to external phenomena?Is it our latent tendency of attachment that is at fault? This is what we need to consider.If the former is true, if outer things are distracting us, if there is something inherently in external things that is at fault, then all we can do is try to avoid them. Since we can never completely avoid external phenomena, really taming distraction would be difficult. However, if it is the mind that is at the root of our distraction, then we can do something about it. We can modify our cognitive behavior, we can be vigilant. Instead of avoiding external things, we can work with the attachment itself that arises in the mind.

If the mind is at the root of the problem, we have the power and freedom to ameliorate our tendency towards distraction.

3. 問:我們如何面對每天令人分心的事物?

法王:外在的事物並不會擄攫我們,我們的經驗通常是我們不由自主地對它們有所執著。近來科技普及,導致了許多令我們分心的事物。我們好比是生活在一個快速發展膨脹的時代,因為科技的普及使得我們更容易接觸到外在能夠誘惑和分散我們的心的散亂源。

但是,我們必須思維的是:外在的事物是否真能令我們散亂分心?是外在事物的問題還是我們的心去攀執外在現象的問題?是我們潛在的攀執外境的習氣所造成的問題嗎?這些都是我們需要去探討的。

如果是前者外在事物令我們散亂分心,是外境本具特質的問題,那麼我們能夠做的就僅僅是去避免它們。但是因為我們無法完全地避免接觸外在的事物,調伏心的散亂將會是非常困難。

但是,如果心是我們散亂的根本,那麼我們將可以有所對治。我們可以改變我們認知的習慣,我們可以更加地警覺。與其避免外在的事物,我們可以直接地對治由內心昇起的執著本身。

如果心是我們問題的根源,那麼我們就會有能力與自由去改善散亂分心的傾向。

Q4﹕Is the spiritual consciousness of the world changing?

A4﹕As I see it, religion must adapt to the changing needs of people. The way things appears to people in the world is changing, and it is the responsibility of religion to adapt to these changes. We should try and preserve what is useful about our spiritual and religious perspective, and leave aside what is not useful. Human psychology is evolving. As it evolves, we need to adapt spirituality, spiritual behavior and customs, to address the needs of individuals.

4. 問:世界的精神意識是否正在轉變?

法王:就我的看法,宗教必須順應人們的需求。世界上人們對事物的經驗正在轉變,而宗教有責任順應這些改變。我們應該嘗試保持那些對我們精神與信仰有 用處的東西,擯除那些無用的東西。人類的內在心理正在演進,當此時刻,我們必須能夠順應內在的精神,精神上的行為與習俗,以便滿足個人的需求。

Q5﹕What is spiritual power?

A5﹕Generally, the power of spirituality is something that is known through experience. It is hard to describe spiritual power to someone who does not have personal experience of it. Spiritual power is very subtle. If you do not have experience with it, it is very hard to understand it.

However, I can say there are various ways spiritual power develops in a person. It is acquired by way of practice, by way of study, and through various other means depending on the inclination of the individual. But the most effective way of encounter spiritual power is through meditation practice.

5. 問:什麼是精神的力量?

法王:一般而言,精神的力量只能透過體驗去認識,而很難對一個沒有親身體驗的人去描述。精神的力量非常地奧妙,如果你未曾有過體驗,是很難去了解它。

但是,我只能說有一些方法可以培養個人的精神力量。它可以是透過練習、透過研究、透過各種順應個人習氣的方便方法而去獲得。但是,最為有效去認識精神力量的方式則是透過禪修的練習。

Q6﹕What is the role of spiritual leaders?

A6﹕I think there are lot of people in this world who have spiritual power. But just be presence of spiritual leaders in the world is not enough. They need to connect with individuals and with groups of people. They need open channels of communication and opportunities to reach people. Likewise, the faith and devotion of people is not enough. They need to be given an opportunity to come into contact with spiritual leaders. Whether they are given this opportunity is in the hands of society. I think there are many beings with spiritual power in the world today. They are here for our benefit. It is very important they be given a chance to reach people.

6. 問:精神領袖的角色為何?

法王:我想這個世界上有許多人具有精神的力量。但是單單有這些人的存在並不足夠。他們必須與個人連結,與團體連結。他們需要有能接觸到人們的公開溝 通管道與機會。相似地,人們只具有信心與虔敬是不夠的,人們必須有機會與這些精神領袖相接觸。人們獲得這樣的機會與否,則為社會所掌控。

我認為當今的世界上有許多具有精神力量的人,他們來此的目的是要利益我們。所以,給予他們接觸眾人的機會是非常重要的。

Q7﹕How should spiritual leaders share their knowledge with the world?

A7﹕Maybe people should focus more on connecting with the general public. That is to say, not just connect with their own groups, but with other people as well.

Yes. I think that spiritual leaders should make their goal to not just reach their own students, but connect with the world‘s citizens. However, spirituality is not like business. Business is based on production and distribution. Spiritual power cannot be spread around like that.

Transmission of spiritual power is possible only through positive human relationships, and through opportunities to form those relationships. And of course most important is the intention to benefit others, that is the whole basis of religion.

Just study religion ourselves is not enough, we need to connect with humanity, with the world in mutually beneficial ways. If we can form positive, conscious relationships with human family, then we can really make a difference in the world.

7. 問:精神領袖應如何與世界分享他們的知見?

法王:或許他們應該更專注與一般大眾結緣。也就是說,不僅僅是與他們自己的團體接觸,也要跟其他的人接觸。

是的。我認為精神領袖應該設立目標,不僅是和他們自己的學生,也要和世界的公民有所接觸。但是,精神力量不像是做生意。生意是基於生產與流通。精神的力量是無法像做生意那樣地傳播。

精神力量的傳佈只有透過正面的人際關係﹐透過形成這些正面關係的機會。當然,最重要的是利益他人的動機,而這也是宗教的整個基礎。

只是我們自己研究宗教是不夠的,我們必須以互利的方式與人類相連結、與世界相連結。如果我們可以與整個人類的大家庭形成正面、自覺的關係﹐那麼我們是可以真正地對這個世界有所轉變。